National Symbols
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2 National Emblem

A uni-dimensional adaptation of the Saranath Lion Capital of Ashoka, the emblem shows three lions (from the four which stand back-to-back on the original capital), and part of the frieze on the abacus i.e. the Wheel of the Law (Dharma) in the centre flanked by a horse and a bull. The bell-shaped lotus which supports the original capital has been omitted and instead, inscribed below the abacus are the words "Satyameva Jayate" - "Truth Alone Triumphs" in the Devnagari script.

3 National flag

Horizontal tricolor with deep saffron on the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom, in equal proportion. In the centre of the white band is a wheel in navy blue with 24 spokes. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length is two to three.

8N National animal

Tiger - large Asiatic carnivorous feline quadruped, Panthera Tigris, maneless, of tawny yellow colour with blackish transverse stripes and white belly, proverbial for its power and its magnificence. 

6 National bird

Peacock - male bird of species P. cristatus, is a native of India, with striking plumage and upper tail converts marked with iridescent ocelli, able to expand its tail erect like fan as ostentatious display. Peacocks are related to pheasants. Found wild in India ( and also domesticated in villages ) they live in jungle lands near water.

4 National flower

The Lotus or waterlily is an aquatic plant of Nymphaea with broad floating leaves and bright fragrant flowers that grow only in shallow waters. In India the sacred lotus is legendary and much folklore and religious mythology is woven around it.

1 National tree

Banyan - Indian fig tree, Ficus bengalensis, whose branches root themselves like new trees over a large area. The roots then give rise to more trunks and branches. Because of this characteristic and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India.

5 National fruit

Mango - A fleshy fruit, eaten ripe or used green for pickles etc., of the tree Mangifera indica, the mango is one of the most important and widely cultivated fruits of the tropical world. Its juicy fruit is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India there are over100 varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours. The mango has been cultivated in India from time immemorial.

National Calendar

Based on the Saka Era with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days, the national calendar has a permanent correspondence with the Gregorian calendar with I Chaitra falling on 22nd March (21st March in leap years).

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